Published on Fri Aug 13 2021

Lineage-defined leiomyosarcoma subtypes emerge years before diagnosis and determine patient survival.

Nathaniel D Anderson, Yael Babichev, Fabio Fuligni, Federico Comitani, Mehdi Layeghifard, Rosemarie E Venier, Stefan C Dentro, Anant Maheshwari, Sheena Guram, Claire Wunker, J Drew Thompson, Kyoko E Yuki, Huayun Hou, Matthew Zatzman, Nicholas Light, Marcus Q Bernardini, Jay S Wunder, Irene L Andrulis, Peter Ferguson, Albiruni R Abdul Razak, Carol J Swallow, James J Dowling, Rima S Al-Awar, Richard Marcellus, Marjan Rouzbahman, Moritz Gerstung, Daniel Durocher, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Brendan C Dickson, Rebecca A Gladdy, Adam Shlien
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Abstract

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are genetically heterogeneous tumors differentiating along smooth muscle lines. Currently, LMS treatment is not informed by molecular subtyping and is associated with highly variable survival. While disease site continues to dictate clinical management, the contribution of genetic factors to LMS subtype, origins, and timing are unknown. Here we analyze 70 genomes and 130 transcriptomes of LMS, including multiple tumor regions and paired metastases. Molecular profiling highlight the very early origins of LMS. We uncover three specific subtypes of LMS that likely develop from distinct lineages of smooth muscle cells. Of these, dedifferentiated LMS with high immune infiltration and tumors primarily of gynecological origin harbor genomic dystrophin deletions and/or loss of dystrophin expression, acquire the highest burden of genomic mutation, and are associated with worse survival. Homologous recombination defects lead to genome-wide mutational signatures, and a corresponding sensitivity to PARP trappers and other DNA damage response inhibitors, suggesting a promising therapeutic strategy for LMS. Finally, by phylogenetic reconstruction, we present evidence that clones seeding lethal metastases arise decades prior to LMS diagnosis.